Whoosh! Issue 48 - September 2000


Roman History Versus XenaVerse Myth
(Or Things That Would Turn My Latin Teacher's Hair Purple)




Classical Egyptian Timeline Versus XenaVerse Timeline

69 BCE

[79] Cleopatra VII is born.

[80] Cleopatra VII was the Cleopatra of popular history. She was born in Alexandria, Egypt, the third child (and girl) in a family of four girls and two boys. Cleopatra's family, the Ptolemy Greeks, took the Egyptian throne after the conquest of Alexander the Great.

[81] The Xenaverse Cleopatra is a forceful, wily, sexual ruler. Xena, after defeating the Romans, says Cleopatra wanted her country to be free [KING OF ASSASSINS (54/308); ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA (108/518)].

58 BCE

[82] Ptolemy XII is overthrown.

[83] Cleopatra's oldest sister, Berenice, took the throne after overthrowing their father, Ptolemy XII. Cleopatra's other older sister, Cleopatra VI died of unknown causes. Many historians suspect that Berenice poisoned her.

[84] Cleopatra is the only Ptolemy introduced in the Xenaverse. Egyptian history in the Xenaverse is relatively unknown. The only known events are Cleopatra's visit to Greece and her death by Brutus.

55 BCE

[85] Ptolemy reclaims throne.

[86] With Pompey's help, Cleopatra's father reclaimed his throne. He beheaded Berenice and her husband.

[87] Seeking Roman aid was not unusual. During the rule of the later Ptolemies, Rome was declared guardian of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Ptolemy paid tribute to Rome to keep from being conquered.

51 BCE

[88] Ptolemy XII dies.

[89] Before his death, Ptolemy XII named Cleopatra VII and his eldest son, Ptolemy XIII, joint rulers. When Cleopatra ascended to the throne, she married her brother, in compliance with Egyptian tradition. Ptolemy, who was too young to rule, resented her rule. He staged a revolt and forced his sister into exile.

[90] The Xenaverse Cleopatra travels to Greece to find allies for her country. Meanwhile, Xena and Gabrielle with help from Joxer and Autolycus, foil a murder attempt by Jett, Joxer's brother. Grateful, Cleopatra tells Xena that if she ever comes to Egypt, she will have a celebration in Xena's honor. (It is rumored that Cleopatra's brother, Ptolemy, was behind the attempt on her life [KING OF ASSASSINS (54/308)]).

48 BCE

[91] Cleopatra regains her throne.

[92] To regain her throne, Cleopatra formed an alliance with Caesar. During the war with her brother, Cleopatra learned that Ptolemy XIII drowned in the Nile. Meanwhile, Arsinoe, their younger sister, laid siege to Cleopatra's forces. After Caesar captures Arsinoe, he restores Cleopatra to the throne. Cleopatra then marries her younger brother Ptolemy XIV, a child [Note 08].

[93] Whether Cleopatra met Caesar in the Xenaverse is unknown.

46 - 44 BCE

[94] Cleopatra resides in Rome with Caesar and Ptolemy.

[95] Caesar installed Cleopatra, their son Caesarion (AKA Ptolemy XV), and her brother Ptolemy XIV in his Roman villa. He showered her with gifts and titles, and he erected a stature of her in the temple of Venus Genetrix. Caesar's affair with Cleopatra shocked the normally conservative Romans.

44 BCE

[96] Caesar is assassinated.

When 'special orders' *do* upset us!

Not living to see the salad that bears his name.


[97] After Caesar's murder, Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Upon their return to Egypt, her brother died, possibly poisoned at Cleopatra's command.

41 BCE

[98] Antony meets Cleopatra.

[99] Antony summoned Cleopatra to Turkey to question her about her allies. Cleopatra arrived in style in a gilded barge with purple sails. While her maids posed as sea nymphs, Cleopatra played Venus, the goddess of love. Antony fell in love with her, and had her sister Arsinoe killed at Cleopatra's request. Later, Cleopatra gave birth to his twins, Cleopatra Selene and Alexander Helios.

[100] The Xenaverse Antony never meets Cleopatra since Brutus assassinated her. Antony meets Xena disguised as Cleopatra instead.

40 BCE

[101] Antony marries Octavia.

[102] After the birth of his children by Cleopatra, Antony returned to Rome. While in Rome, Antony married Octavia (Octavian's half-sister) and had three children by her.

37 BCE

[103] Antony returns to Egypt and marries Cleopatra.

[104] After Antony returned to Egypt, he had another son by Cleopatra, Ptolemy Philadelphus. When Octavia heard of Antony's Egyptian marriage, she traveled to Greece to see him. Meanwhile, Cleopatra pitched a fit, cried, fainted, and starved herself, thereby preventing Octavia from seeing her husband.

[105] Enraged by Antony's bigamy, Octavius spread rumors that Cleopatra entrapped Antony with her Eastern wiles. Cleopatra had turned Antony, a morally upright Roman, into a decadent Egyptian.

34 BCE

[106] Antony proclaims Cleopatra the Queen of Kings.

[107] Antony made his children rulers of various Roman provinces: Alexander Helios, the king of Armenia, Cleopatra Selene, the queen of Cyrenaica and Crete, and Ptolemy Philadelphus, the king of Syria. He proclaimed Caesarion, the King of Kings and Cleopatra, the Queen of Kings.

[108] Outraged, Octavius had Rome declare "just war" (iustum bellum) on Egypt. He had Antony's will read before the Senate. In his will, Antony acknowledged Caesarion as the rightful ruler of Rome and Egypt. Because of that, Octavius claimed that Antony was now an Eastern potentate and not worthy of Roman citizenship.

[109] The Xenaverse Antony comes to Egypt to form an alliance against Brutus. As Xena falls in love with Antony, she realizes that he is as power hungry as Caesar was. As part of her plan to defeat both men, Xena offers her navy to Antony.

[110] Xena finds Octavius hiding in her bedroom. Protecting him from Brutus and Antony, Xena hopes that Octavius will return to rule Rome well [ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA (108/518)].

31 BCE

[111] The Battle of Actium (Greece) occurs.

[112] Octavius defeated the fleets of Antony and Cleopatra. Marcus Agrippa, Octavius' general, bottled Antony's fleet up in the harbor. When Cleopatra saw that the battle was lost, she took her fleet to Egypt. Enraged at her desertion, Antony hotly pursued her. However, in Egypt, they reconciled and partied until Octavius' arrival.

[113] The Xenaverse Brutus arrives in Egypt for Cleopatra's navy. When he finds Xena instead, Brutus still bargains for the Egyptian ships. Later, during the sea battle, Xena has the Egyptians attack both Roman fleets, and defeat them.

30 BCE

[114] Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide.

Ow!  My hair!

Not Richard Burton and Liz Taylor.


[115] When Octavius reaches Alexandria, Antony's army deserted him. Incensed at Cleopatra's perceived betrayal, Antony stormed the city looking for her. Terrified, Cleopatra faked her own death. When her servants told him that she was dead, Antony committed suicide.

[116] Before she could take her life, Octavius captured Cleopatra. Frightened that he would humiliate her in Rome, a nearly naked Cleopatra flung herself at Octavius. After he repulsed her, Cleopatra made elaborate plans to kill herself. Finally, she succeeded. After her death, Egypt became a Roman province.

[117] In the Xenaverse, Xena and Antony fight to the death. Reluctantly, she kills him. Because of Xena's actions, Egypt is still free of Rome.


Roman And Egyptian XenaVerse Timeline By Episodes

10 Winters Ago

[118] DESTINY (36/212): Pirate Xena holds Caesar prisoner.

AW: After Ten Winters

1 AW

[119] THE DELIVERER (50/304): Caesar invades Britannia.

[120] KING OF ASSASSINS (54/308): Ptolemy attempts to kill Cleopatra.

[121] WHEN IN ROME... (62/316): Caesar campaigns in Gaul. Crassus dies.

2 AW

[122] A GOOD DAY (73/405): Roman civil war (Pompey versus Caesar) occurs in Greece.

[123] RENDER UNTO CASEAR (H86/505): Caesar invades Eire.

[124] ENDGAME (88/420): Pompey dies.

[125] IDES OF MARCH (89/421): Brutus kills Caesar. Xena and Gabrielle die.

3 AW

[126] FALLEN ANGEL (91/501): Xena and Gabrielle are brought back from the dead. Caesar remains dead.

[127] ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA (108/518): Cleopatra, Brutus, and Marc Antony die. Octavian becomes leader of Rome.

[128] LOOKING DEATH IN THE EYE (109/519): Octavian becomes Eve's guardian.

28 AW

[129] LIVIA (110/520): Virgil is born sometime before. Octavius is the Emperor Augustus. Eve as Livia is champion of Rome.


Notes

Note 01:
I am surprised that the XWP writers did not use this event for a story plot since it fits the themes of the show.
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Note 02:
In 43 CE, Roman Emperor Claudius successfully conquered Britannia. During Nero's reign (60 CE), Queen Boudicca (Boadicea) of the Iceni lead her revolt against Roman rule and lost.
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Note 03:
According to Chinese writings, the Roman Legionaries captured by the Parthians ended up in China as mercenaries.
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Note 04:
Emperors Vespasian and Titus in the CE 70s built the Roman Coliseum.
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Note 05:
This is the origin of "I have crossed the Rubicon" that means "There is no turning back". When he entered Roman Italy, Caesar said, "The die is cast".
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Note 06:
Vergil wrote a poem foretelling the coming of a great Deliverer, divinely sent to free the world from its misery. (Not to be confused with Dahak). He came to believe that Augustus was the fulfillment of that prophecy.

The Xenaverse Virgil is a follower of Eli.
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Note 07:
Imperator was a military title given to a general who was given the honor of a triumph.
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Note 08:
When Caesar arrived in Egypt, Cleopatra sought an alliance with him. To escape detection from Ptolemy, Cleopatra hid in a rug, which was delivered to Caesar. Entranced by her audacity and beauty, Caesar became her lover.

In the Xenaverse, Xena (as Cleopatra) presents herself chained in a rug for her meeting with Marc Antony.
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Bibliography

Printed Sources

Crawford, Michael, The Roman Republic, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1992.

Empires Ascendant: Timeframe 400BC - AD200, Time-Life Books, Virginia, 1987.

Goodman, Martin, The Roman World: 44BC - AD 180, Routledge, London, 1997

Mills, Dorothy, The Book Of The Ancient Romans (1937, G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York)

Starr, Chester, The Roman Empire: 27BC - AD 476. A Study In Survival, Oxford University Press, New York, 1982.

Web Sources

Jay's Roman History, Coins, and Technology

Reed College (Oregon) Classics 373 - History 393: Ancient History Rome

World Royalty: History of Egypt - Cleopatra

The History of Xena: Warrior Princess

Whoosh!



Biography

Virginia Carper Virginia Carper
My goal is to be a garden variety human being. My friends know me as a squirrel. I am, however, a card carrying member of the Squirrel Lovers Club, and do squirrel studies. My family watches X:WP for the marvelous things Xena does and for Joxer, the warlord with autism.
Favorite episode: BEEN THERE, DONE THAT (48/302)
Favorite line: Joxer to Xena and Gabrielle: "A great many people have become allies because of their hatred of me." Xena and Gabrielle nod 'Yes!' BEEN THERE, DONE THAT(48/302)
First episode seen: WARRIOR PRINCESS (H09/109)
Least favorite episode: Most of the Third Season


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